B (Glossary)

B (Glossary)

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Bacteria = small single or multicellular (see relevant entry) prokaryotic organisms that multiply asexually (by division or other method). They maybe pathogens.

Baldwin effect = A theory proposed by James Mark Baldwin who argued that an acquired or learnt behaviour can become gradually assimilated into an orgnanism's genetic repertoire.

Basal = from Greek (Gk) originated word that indicates what is located towards some base or it is the base for something.

Basal species = species at the base of a family tree, species from which all others evolved.

Basipharyngeal joint = a protuberance on the top of the upper pharyngeal jaw meeting the bottom of the skull in cichlids.

Basin = depression of a water body (i.e. Amazon basin, Mediterranean basin); an extended depressed area within the sea or a continent.

Basking sharks = sharks that usually found near the surface, members of the CETORHINIDAE family.

Bathy – = Gk vorsible that indicates the depth related.

Bathyal = the benthic environments located between 200 m and 4.000 m of depths.

Bathydemersal = species that live and feed below 200 m of depth.

Bathypelagic = Gk term for the species that live and feed at the oceanic* zone (between 1.000 m and 4.000 m).

Behaviour = The sum of all the responses of an organism to various stimuli.

Benthic = from the Gk word benthos (= bottom); bottom dwelling organisms and environments located at the substratum. (i.e Zoobenthos = benthic animals).

Benthopelagic = Gk term for the species that live and feed at the bottom and environments that are bottom associated.

Bi – = prefix that indicates two times, or number two.

Bigamy = being married to two females at the same time. In fish, pairing off (spawning) with two females simultaneously.

Binomen = a name consisting of two names, the name of a genus and the name of a species (e.g. Brachyplatystoma tigrinum).

Billfishes = fishes equipped with long pointed posterior*, members of the ISTIOPHORIDAE family.

Biodiversity = variety of species.

Bioluminescence = the ability of some organisms to produce light by chemical reactions taking place within their tissues.

Bicuspid = pointed on both sides.

Bifurcate = separated or divided into two different parts.

Bilobate = with two lobes.

Biomass = the amount (on weight terms) of a certain population, or a living stock.

Biometry = branch of the biology science related to statistics.

Biparental = of both parents (i.e. biparental care or biparental mouthbrooding).

Biserial = having two series, or two rows.

Bivalves = Gk originated word used for shellfishes with two shells (i.e. oysters, mussels etc).

Blastomeres = the individual cell, which is formed during cleavage (see relevant entry).

Body length terms = TL for total length (head length for seahorses), SL for the standard length (without the tail), Fl for the fork length, W’D for the width of the discs of skates and rays, OT for the length (height) of sea horses.

Boreal = Gk originated geography term for the northern. The one that is adapted in temperate water when is referred to an aquatic organism.

Brackish = term referred to animals or water bodies. When the term is used for water means that the specific water has a salt concentration of 0,5 p.p.t. to 30 p.p.t. (0,5 gr to 30 gr of salts per litre).

Branchial = Gk originated term related to gills.

Branchiostegals = Gk originated term for the slim bones which they support the gill membrane.

Breeding = the act of producing offspring, reproduction.

Broodstock = animals that kept as breeders, animals kept separate to produce offspring.

Bryozoans = Gk word used to describe small invertebrate animals living in colonies as corals.

Buccal = term related to the mouth cavity.

Buffer = a stabilizing chemical agent of a solution. Also buffering capacity indicates the ability of a solution to remain chemically stable.

Buoyancy = the ability to float and change levels in the water column.

Bycatch = incidentally caught specimens within the catches of other targets.